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History of the European Goldfinch in the NYC Area 1852-2023 (Spring 2023)

Updated: Mar 9, 2023

European Goldfinch, Central Park 3 Feb 2013 Deborah Allen

8 March 2023

Bird Notes: Keep an eye on the Schedule page of our web site: most of the spring (March through early June) schedule has been posted. Saturday walks start on March 18 (9:30am); and Friday morning walks (meet Conservatory Garden at 106th street and 5th Avenue) on 17 March (8:30am). Info in this Newsletter. Sunday walks at 9:30am through end of March.

Herein we trace the 175 year history of the European Goldfinch in our area...from the first release of this non-native finch at Greenwood Cemetery (Brooklyn) in 1852 through recent observations and videos of these birds in Prospect Park (Brooklyn) during the last few weeks - see these March 2023 videos of European Goldfinches in Prospect Park from Gus Keri (CLICK) and Tony Fanning (Click). In Manhattan, European Goldfinches first bred in 1879 or so, and were permanent residents until about 1910. These finches have never had a negative impact upon native, breeding birds - or the local environment.

European Goldfinch in Prospect Park (Brooklyn) late winter 2023 Tony Fanning (Click)

In our Historical Notes we send snippets and some detailed observations of European Goldfinches starting with (a) an 1852 excerpt on a release of 48 European Goldfinches in Greenwood Cemetery, with follow-up comments (b-h) about these birds in Manhattan (including breeding in Central Park), the Bronx (1901-02), through nesting on Long Island by the 1930s. By the 1950s in the tri-state area, European Goldfinches are rarely reported. However, in early March 2009, one is reported on Staten Island, and by 2016-2017 up to six are seen in Brooklyn (Gus Keri), and may be breeding (at least one bird seen without a band). In mid-December 2017, twelve European Goldfinches are counted on Governor's Island (just off lower Manhattan). And as the 2023 photos and videos included in this issue show, several European Goldfinches are doing fine in Prospect Park. It would be wonderful to determine how many are truly feral, and how many have bands suggesting they began life in captivity. Finally (i), we include a summary of the weather here in NYC: the third warmest February on record (since 1869), and part of the third warmest winter on record in NYC (December/January/February). However (however) this January-February 2023 was the #1 MILDEST Jan-Feb combination EVER! Some writers suggest that European Goldfinches can survive mild winters...but not severe ones with snow etc.

European Goldfinch in Prospect Park (Brooklyn) 1 March 2023 Lotus Winnie Lee (Click)

Bird Walks for Early to mid-MARCH 2023

All Walks @ $10/person

1.[CANCELLED RAIN]: Saturday, 11 March at 9:30am [CANCELLED RAIN]. Bird Walk. Meet at the Dock on Turtle Pond $10. The Dock on Turtle Pond is located mid-park at 79th street opposite Belvedere Castle

2. Sunday, 12 March at 9:30am. Bird Walk. Meet at the Dock on Turtle Pond $10. The Dock on Turtle Pond is located mid-park at 79th street opposite Belvedere Castle.


3. Friday, 17 March at 8:30am. Bird Walk. Meet at the Conservatory Garden $10. Conservatory Garden is located at 106th street and Fifth Avenue.

4. Saturday, 18 March at 9:30am. Bird Walk. Meet at the Dock on Turtle Pond $10. The Dock on Turtle Pond is located mid-park at 79th street opposite Belvedere Castle.

5. Sunday, 19 March at 9:30am. Bird Walk. Meet at the Dock on Turtle Pond $10. The Dock on Turtle Pond is located mid-park at 79th street opposite Belvedere Castle.

Call (718-828-8262) or Email us with questions:

[below] European Goldfinch, Central Park 3 Feb 2013 Deborah Allen

The fine print: Our walks on weekends in winter meet on Sundays at 9:30am at the Dock on Turtle Pond (approx. 79th street in the middle of the the south end of the Great Lawn). Saturday 9:30am walks begin on 18 March and continue through early June. Please note: Delacorte Theater is just next door...find the path (paved) that heads out to Turtle Pond and you will indeed reach a wooden dock that extends into the pond. Check the Meeting Locations (CLICK HERE) page of our web site for detailed directions. In early April we start 7:30am/9:30am walks on weekends - these will meet at The Boathouse Restaurant/Cafe - more info on our web site: see the SCHEDULE page.

Friday morning walks (8:30am) begin on 17 March and run through 2 June. These walks begin at Conservatory Garden (mostly closed for renovation in spring 2023): we meet at 106th street and 5th Avenue (north side of Conservatory Garden). Deborah Allen leads the Friday walks - she knows more about birds than Bob...Her email is: and phone: 347-703-5554. If you want to rent binoculars ($10) please (please) let her know the night before! If you are lost (or god forbid, arrive late) and need to find the group, feel free to call her but do note that 2-3 other people are calling her at the same time...

Our home phone is 718-828-8262...and Deborah's cell is: 347-703-5554. Email is ( If you are lost and trying to get to the bird walk, call Deborah's cell phone...but remember on weekends there will be 2-3 other people calling who are also lost - please be patient. If in doubt about whether a walk will take place or not the morning of the walk: check the main landing page of this web site as well as the "Schedule" page - if the walk is cancelled, information will be posted there by 6am the day of the walk, and usually by 11pm the night before. If still confused and as a last resort, call us at home - if no one answers it means we left for the bird walk. We end all our Central Park walks at about noon near 79th street and the East Drive - about 150 meters east from where we started. Walks last about 3 hrs (a bit less if cold or rainy), and you can leave at anytime - we won't be offended. If you need directions/help to your next destination, just ask someone on the walk - we aim to please.

European Goldfinch in Prospect Park (Brooklyn) late winter 2023 Tony Fanning (Click)

[below] American Goldfinch, Central Park January 2022

Here is what we saw last week (brief highlights)

Sunday, 4 March (Meet at the Dock on Turtle Pond at 930am through 26 March): Perhaps this is the last time I will write this for winter 2023: IT IS STILL WINTER and the birds we've been seeing...well we are scrounging around for notable noble ones. How slow was it this past Sunday? We had a handful of Ruddy Ducks at the Reservoir (last week 75+) that yawned at the calls from my speaker (last week they swam right over). And the male Eastern Towhee that was at the Dock on Turtle Pond at 9:15am, promptly flew away by the time most people arrived at 9:30am. On the plus side, the Great Horned Owl was well seen and Edmund Berry posted a wonderful video (CLICK). And while we are at it, Edmund (aka @EspressoBird on Twitter) made a nice video of a pair of Gadwalls at the Reservoir (CLICK). Combine that with a nice male Hooded Merganser from Aniket (CLICK) or this Bufflehead (CLICK), and maybe the bird walk was not so bad after all. Anyway, the first American Woodcocks are arriving so this Sunday, 12 March there should be a few new birds...and who knows there might be Bluebirds too - they've been see this week in NYC as well.

Deborah's List of Birds for Sunday, 4 March 2023: CLICK HERE

European Goldfinch Kaikoura, New Zealand, 22 November 2019 Deborah Allen


Middle 19th-Century introduction of the European Goldfinch on Long Island, N.Y. Information on this somewhat obscure subject has been found in a book not likely to be listed in ornithological bibliographies. It is 'Green-Wood Cemetery: a History of the Institution from 1838 to 1864,' by Nehemiah Cleaveland, New York, 1866. The data are on pages 73 and 134.

Toward the end of 1852, the trustees of the cemetery purchased 168 British birds, through the agency of Mr. Thomas S. Woodcock, of Manchester, and freed them in Green-Wood. There were 48 skylarks, 24 wood larks, 48 European Goldfinches, 24 robins, 12 thrushes, and 12 blackbirds. The birds were purchased at an average price of eightpence, and the entire importation cost slightly over $100.00.

According to the author, the experiment was a failure because the freed birds all disappeared. It is worthy of note, however, that skylarks maintained for many years a representation on farmland in the outskirts of Brooklyn, and that European Goldfinches still persist in the more distant vicinity of Seaford and Massapequa [1945].

R. C. MURPHY, American Museum of Natural History, New York.

Info about Robert Cushman Murphy: Click Here


European Goldfinch in Central Park [1886]. Carduelis elegans Resident; common; breeds.


Naturalization of the European Goldfinch in New York City and Vicinity [1886]. I am informed by Mr. W.A. Conklin, of the Central Park Menagerie, New York City, that the European Goldfinch (Carduelis elegeus) first appeared in the Park in 1879, having probably crossed the Hudson River from Hoboken, N.J., where some birds had been set at liberty in the previous year. The species is now common and apparently resident. On 20 April 1886, I discovered, in precisely similar situations, two nests, one of which, containing five fresh eggs, has been forwarded to the Smithsonian Institution. It was placed in a pine tree, resting among the tufts of long needles near the end of a slender horizontal limb, some twelve feet from the ground. The species seems to be gradually extending its range, as on 23 May 1886, I met with a pair occupying a clump of pines six or seven miles to the northward.

E.T. Adney, New York City.

Info about E.T. Adney (aka Tappan Adney): Click Here and especially HERE.


European Goldfinch [1901-02] in the Bronx.

Recorded May 12-24, 1901 and January 1, 1902 at Riverdale (the Bronx) by E.P. Bicknell.


European Goldfinch [1905] on Long Island.

THE beautiful European Goldfinch has been introduced in Central Park, New York, by importation made some years ago. While the bird has not increased rapidly it has, nevertheless, made a steady gain and is now well established in all the upper districts of the City. I have not been so fortunate as to see one on Long Island as yet, but a portion of a wing left by a neighbor's cat that had just devoured a bird indicates that this species has visited us once, at least, and met an untimely end.


Six British Birds in America [1905] In New York City and vicinity I have observed six birds which inhabit Europe and the British Isles. The First of these is the English Sparrow, which is so familiar to all, and which is hated by everybody. It is said that it will drive away other birds, but in Central Park there are a great many English Sparrows, and other bird life does not seem to be on the decrease. The second bird is the Starling, which is also multiplying at a rapid pace and may soon be as common and domineering as the English sparrow. There are a great many of these birds in New York City, and they build their nests in nooks and crannies afforded by buildings. The European Goldfinch is the next bird. In the year 1905 I saw quite a few of these birds in Central Park, although I have seen none this year, (May 8th). As far as I can see they show no signs of increasing. A colony of Skylarks has been established near Brooklyn, N.Y., and my brother and I spent a very pleasant afternoon watching these birds. They would soar heavenward, singing as if their tiny throats would burst, and then, having reached the end of their flight, they descend, only to repeat the same performance. The fifth bird was observed by my brother and myself in Central Park. This bird was the Greenfinch. It was in a tree in one of the most populated parts of the park, where automobiles and carriages went rattling by, and where nurse-girls and children were warming about. We had a good look at the bird, however, and there could be no doubt as to its identity. How it possibly could have gotten there I cannot imagine. The sixth and last bird I shall speak of is perhaps the most interesting of all. This bird, is the Chaffinch. A certain spot in Central Park, has for three years, (at least), been the locality inhabited by a male Chaffinch. One bird observer released some female chaffinches, hoping that the bird would breed, but as far as I know, it was a failure. The bird stays in the same place in the park, and may be seen over and over again pouring forth its song from the same tree. The bird leaves the park in the autumn and returns again about the first of March. The Chaffinch is still in the park and seems as prosperous as ever. Clarence C. Abbott, New York, N. Y.

Info about C.C. Abbott, M.D.: Click Here.

European Goldfinch in Prospect Park (Brooklyn) late winter 2023 Tony Fanning (Click)

EUROPEAN GOLDFINCH. 1914. Introduced at Hoboken (NJ) in 1878. The following year it appeared in Central Park, New York City and soon spread over the northern portions of Manhattan island and surrounding country. Locally it was not an uncommon resident. In the winter of 1891, many were noticed flocking with American Goldfinches at Dobbs Ferry [Westchester County], but several were found dead in the snow, evidently the severity of the winter proving too much for this species. In the spring of 1900, I noticed several pairs that were endeavoring to build their nests in Central Park, and in the country about Kings Bridge [Bronx County/NYC] and Spuyten Duyvil [Manhattan].

Elon Howard Eaton, NYS Museum, Albany, N.Y.

Info about E.H. Eaton: Click Here.


EUROPEAN GOLDFINCH (Carduelis carduelis). 1923. This pretty European species was introduced at Hoboken [NJ] in 1878. It appeared in Central Park the next year, and then spread to the upper parts of the City. For a time it gave every appearance of increasing in numbers. For some reason, however, this promise has not been fulfilled. Only a very few stragglers have been reported in the last ten years, and while it is too early to say that the bird is extirpated, its introduction can be declared a hopeless failure.

Long Island. Single individuals seen in Brooklyn on May 27, 1915 and April 27, 1918 (Fleischer).

CENTRAL PARK. Formerly a common resident, which had completely disappeared in 1907; one bird seen May 9, 1920 (L. N. Nichols).

New Jersey. ENGLEWOOD REGION. I have no record of the arrival of this species, but its maximum numbers were reached about 1910. Last observed in 1915 (Nichols), and now probably extinct.

Ludlow Griscom, American Museum of Natural History, New York City.

Info about Ludlow Griscom: Click Here.

European Goldfinch Central Park 3 Feb 2013 Deborah Allen


J. T. NICHOLS. Info about John Treadwell Nichols: Click Here.

THE first record of a completed nesting of the introduced British Goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis britannica) on Long Island, N.Y. (Nichols, D. G. and J. T., 1935), which so far as I am aware is also the first record in the United States since this bird used to, in the nineties (1890s), to be a common resident in Central Park, New York City, leads me to set down a resume of my personal observations and some others hat have come to my attention bearing on its history in the vicinity of New York.

Griscom, 1923 says that it had completely disappeared from Central Park in 1907. From the fall of 1910 to the spring of 1916 I resided in Englewood, New Jersey, and shortly after leaving there prepared an annotated manuscript list of the birds of that area in cooperation with Mr. Griscom based on our personal observations and such others as were available to us at the time. In it we say of this species, 'uncommon in fall, winter and spring, probably breeds.' I find record in my journal of a flock of about eight on January 28, 1912; about six at Leonia on February 16, 1913; one on February 21, 1915, seven, one in full song, in a heavy wet snowstorm on March 6, a flock of about five at Coytesville on March 13 with the remark: 'They seem to be unusually common in the Englewood region this year,' and the species singing on March 23, 1915.

While publishing records of an individual in Brooklyn, May 27, 1915, and April 27, 1918, and one in Central Park, New York City, May 9, 1920, Griscom, 1923, was of the opinion (in which I did not concur), that the species had practically gone from the New York City region. It was very rarely observed and reported and may well have reached a low point in its numbers between 1915 and 1925. I had resided at Garden City, Long Island, for seven years before meeting with it there on May 20, 1923, one associated with and chasing a bright male American Goldfinch. There had been a number of scattered American Goldfinches about for some days, and a Pine Siskin seen in their company as recently as May 12. The association of the European with migrant or drifting native Finches is worth noting.

It was another ten years before I again observed a European Goldfinch in Garden City. Scattering records of its occurrence meanwhile are to be found published as follows: 1925, New York City; 1927, Clason Point, June 14 (Muller); 1928, Pelham, February 13 (Johnston); 1929, Ward's Island, August 8 (Cromwell), University Heights, New York City, October 10 (Cruickshank); 1930, Lambertsville N.J., May 27 (Elliot); 1931, Westbury, Long Island, June 3 to 6, two birds (Matuszewski), Brooklyn Botanic Garden, two on October 10 and one on the 12th (Wilmott), and the species reported there in mid-September another observer; 1932, Central Park, New York City, two on September 23 (Miss Johnson and Mrs. Edge) to September 26 (Brand and Watson); 1933, one at Bayside, Long Island, March 18, in song (Bohn).

To review briefly recent observations at Garden City. On April 21, 1933, I observed two, one in full song and one also carrying nesting material into a large, thick-foliaged pine tree. After two days, however, they were not seen again about this tree, though two were seen not far away, on April 30 and May 5, and three birds on May 11. Reports indicate that several individuals were present in Garden City that April. In 1934 a singing bird was observed in the same general locality on April 24, and on April 26 two together, after which the species was not seen again. In 1935 two were observed there on April 4 (D. G. Nichols), one singing bird on April 25, and on May 12 we found two birds flying back and forth in company and saw one of them visit and thus disclosed their essentially completed nest, at a spot where they also had been observed May 3, 9, and 10 (D. G. N.).

On the late afternoon of May 14 they were present, and one carried a beak full of material to the nest. On some seven dates that the nest was visited from May 15 to 30 one bird was on it, the other nearby only twice. On June 6, 7 (p.m.) and 9 (midday, overcast) it was uncovered and the old birds seen only on the 7th, feeding here and there together without approaching the nest tree. However, on the morning of June 12, D. G. Nichols found both old birds present and one on the nest, and on climbing the tree that it contained two young, well grown but still more or less in the pin-feather stage. That afternoon the nest was uncovered, and in some 15 minutes wait I observed the pair come into adjoining trees, but they did not go to the nest. When it was visited on the mornings of June 13 and 14 no old birds were about, but on the latter date there was a silent young bird, seemingly ready to fly fidgeting on its rim, and this is presumably the date on which the young left, without our having seen their parents bring food to them at any time; and neither old nor young were seen again that summer. Whereas it is true that visits had been few and scattering, partly due to other preoccupations a and partly to avoid disturbing the birds, it does seem that the young had relatively little attention from their parents, perhaps correlated with there being only two or with a long period in the nest. The nest was collected on June 19, and found to be plastered along the outer rim with excreta. The young had apparently been very untidy their last few days at home. It was placed 14 ft. 3 or 4 inches from the ground in a small maple, more than half way out from the trunk of the tree just above a limb where this began to fork, and rather well concealed by the leaves.

From a little study of the above data we perhaps can get a better understanding of the present status of this species. The same pair may have nested nearby for the last three years, it could easily have been overlooked, or it may not. The appearance of the species in April is attributable to a regular vernal movement corresponding to spring migration dates in Britain, just as mid-May corresponds to a first brood nesting date there. The small number of young in this brood and lack of any record of the birds at second brood dates may be due to chance but is probably significant. Most rare birds in these latitudes are so by reason of being out of their range of abundance but this one is probably adjusted to its environment on the basis of small numbers per unit area throughout. Very likely the Westbury birds of June, 1931, only a few miles from Garden City, had a nest somewhere but at too great a distance to be found. The one at Garden City in May, 1923, may have been an unmated male, or have had a sitting mate. The correspondence of late winter dates at Englewood in 1912, 1913 and 1915 seems to me to indicate that such birds were also well established in their shallow environmental niche rather than lost

stragglers; and though from further knowledge of its behavior I am less confident than then, that the species nested nearby, I see no reason to accept the opinion that it did not persist in the Englewood region, or to surmise that the Englewood birds may have left when I did and eventually relocated me at Garden City! In this connection I may call attention to the hypothesis that one living in an area may have better opportunity to pick up casually certain data that interest him there than any number of active field-trippers to the same area, though they obtain much the larger migration lists.

European Goldfinch in Prospect Park (Brooklyn) late winter 2023 Tony Fanning (Click)


CENTRAL PARK. This introduced species appeared in the park in 1879 and was resident until 1906. Since then seen 9 May 1920 (L.N. Ni­chols); Sept. 9 to 30, 1932 (Dale, W. D. Holgate, Johnson); Sept. 9-10, 1953 (Cobb); about 10 November 1946 (Sutton). There is the possibility of escaped cage birds.

PROSPECT PARK. 18 April 1948 (Alperin, Jacobson); 28 April 1918 (Fleisher); 27 May 1915 (Fleisher); 2 October 1955 (Milton Goldman, Kreissman, Audrey Wrede); 10 October 1954 (Smith); 11 October 1931 (four; Raymond). Escapes are possible.

Geoffrey Carleton American Goldfinch at Pelham Bay Park, the Bronx, Autumn 2022

European Goldfinch in Staten Island (Westerleigh)

2 March 2009

A male European goldfinch has been visiting my thistle feeder on and off this morning. I assume that this is the same bird that was reported last week by Roy Fox from his Westerleigh [Staten Island] feeder. Last summer [2008], we had about a half-dozen individuals feeding on one of the ballfields at South Beach. Presumably escaped cage birds, but who knows...

Otherwise, lots of house finches, American goldfinches and juncos, along with a few white-throats, cardinals and mourning doves. And one downy woodpecker.

Ed Johnson


European Goldfinch in Staten Island

10 April 2014

A European Goldfinch appeared at my sunflower seed feeder and remained for about 30 minutes. It was in the company of a flock of American Goldfinches and House Finches. What struck me was its very aggressive behavior towards other birds on the feeder. It was wary and difficult to approach and photograph. Its call is distinctive and it helped locate the bird in a Magnolia Tree.

Howard Fischer


European Goldfinch in Brooklyn (Prospect Park)

10 April 2017

There were sporadic reports of a single and rarely a couple of European Goldfinches in Brooklyn now and then until spring of 2015 when 4 were seen together at Bush Terminal Pier park. They were first reported by Jennifer Plummer Kepler.

I saw all the 4 European Goldfinches the following day and photographed them. All were banded which suggest they were either escapees or recently released birds. The birds were reported later that spring in Prospect Park and since then they have been seen all over Brooklyn parks. I have seen them as far south as Calvert Vaux park.

During 2016, I saw as many as 6 at one time. Some of them were without bands. It was suggested that the birds have settled down very nicely in Brooklyn and started reproducing offspring. This bird (today) is without a band. It suggests it was born in the wild here in Brooklyn.

So, Unless Donald Trump decides otherwise, these birds are Brooklynese at heart.

Guy Keri


European Goldfinch in Governors Island (Manhattan)

19 December 2017

There was a small flock of European Goldfinch in Hammock Grove of approximately twelve (12) birds and a small group of 5 (same birds?) seen off Nolan Park later in the day. Unfortunately the island is closed to the public until May 1st but I was very lucky to get invited to the island yesterday.

I was looking into European Goldfinch sightings on eBird and the most recent one in the area is from Prospect Park on Nov 26th (2017) of one bird. The only sightings "locally" are from Bermuda and points north of Chicago. The number of individuals from the Lake Michigan group are no higher than 8 individuals for sightings between Nov-Dec of this year.

Is the most likely explanation that these are a new set of escaped birds? Or could the weather have had an effect on local populations? They understood Sweetgums as a food source and the birds were very vocal. How quickly do newly escaped birds take to Sweetgum Trees?

You can see photos on Cathy Weiner's eBird checklist: CLICK HERE

Ben Cacace


European Goldfinch in Staten Island

27 April 2018

A European Goldfinch is feeding on my Niger feeder now. It shows signs of fresh alternate plumage.

Howard Fischer


European Goldfinch in Brooklyn 2023 (Prospect Park)

European Goldfinch had been seen sporadically in NYC until July 2015 when suddenly, 4 showed up in Bush Terminal, all banded. (Escapees/released?). Since then, they spread and multiplied all over Brooklyn. Last week, 18 seen together in Prospect Park. For info, CLICK HERE from the Brooklyn Bird Alert on Twitter. And for a video by Gus Keri: CLICK .


Winter 2022-23 was the THIRD WARMEST winter in

NYC's History

Following the mildest January on record, February 2023 was the third mildest February (behind Feb. 2018 and 2017). One anomaly was an Arctic flash-freeze which saw the temperature drop to 3F on 4 February. (By contrast, January’s coldest reading was 28F.) Overall, the month was 5.2F degrees milder than average (January was 9.8F degrees above average), which was largely due to a 13-day period between Feb. 8-20 that had temperatures that were 12F degrees above average.

The month was 2.4F degrees colder than January. While the two months had similar average highs (48.6F in Feb.; 48.7F in Jan.), February's average low was 4.6F degrees colder (33.6F vs. 38.2F).

The range in temperature during the month was 67 degrees (from 3° to 70°), which was the greatest range in February since 1961 (-2° to 65°). Average range in February is 48 degrees (13° to 61°). The reading of 70F on 16 February was the twelfth time a reading of 70+ was reported in February and a year’s earliest date for a reading of 70+ since 2007.

February 1 had the first measurable snow of the winter (0.4"), the latest date on record. The next snowfall was nearly four weeks later (Feb. 27-28) when 1.8" fell. Looking back, 32 other Februarys have had less snow than February 2023's 2.2", including last February and February 2020, which had 2.0" and a trace, respectively.

1.28” of precipitation was reported, an amount that made it the tenth driest on record (0.01" less than February 1872, which was pushed out of the top 10). The greatest amount from a storm was 0.55" on February 27-28.

The winter of 2023 was the third mildest on record (behind the winters of 2002 and 2016, but January and February 2023 became the mildest first two months of any year, easily beating Jan-Feb 1990. Finally, the winter of 2023 was the 18th in which December was the coldest month.


Deborah Allen and Robert DeCandido PhD

Follow our Bird Sightings on Twitter: @DAllenNYC and/or @BirdingBobNYC

Red Maple in Central Park, Manhattan 6 April 2015 Robert DeCandido

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